Jupiter and Saturn form ‘Star of Bethlehem’ as they converge in sky

Jupiter and Saturn appeared closer to each other in the night sky tonight than they have in 800 years — forming a celestial beacon akin to the ‘Star of Bethlehem’.

The gas giants — the largest planets in the solar system — have been slowly getting closer in the sky since the summer, and appeared like a double planet system.

Coinciding with the Winter Solstice, the conjunction could be viewed by eye from anywhere on Earth.  

The planets looked around a fifth of a full moon’s width apart earlier tonight — appearing low above the horizon in the UK — and can be seen for the rest of the week until Christmas Day.

The German astronomer Johannes Kepler wrote in 1614 that he believed the ‘star of Bethlehem’ in the Nativity story may have been a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn.

Others researchers have suggested instead that the ‘three wise men’ may have followed a triple conjunction of Jupiter, Saturn and Venus.

While Venus won’t be part of the this week’s conjunction, it will still be an impressive astronomical site — one best viewed on the equator, but visible worldwide.

The event comes in a busy week for stargazers, with the Ursid meteor shower — the last for this year — peaking tonight and continuing into early tomorrow morning.

At its height, the shower produces around five shooting stars an hour, which will burn up as they pass through the atmosphere at around 36 miles per second.

Like the conjunction, the Ursids will be visible to the naked eye — but will most easily seen in areas with little light pollution. 

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Jupiter and Saturn above Oban on the Sound of Kerrera, a waterway separating the island of Kerrera, Argyll and Bute, looking out towards the Western Islands in Scotland, December 21, 2020

Jupiter and Saturn above Oban on the Sound of Kerrera, a waterway separating the island of Kerrera, Argyll and Bute, looking out towards the Western Islands in Scotland, December 21, 2020

Saturn (top) and Jupiter (bottom) appearing at the closest distance to each other since July 1623 in a picture taken in central Seoul, South Korea, December 21, 2020

Saturn (top) and Jupiter (bottom) appearing at the closest distance to each other since July 1623 in a picture taken in central Seoul, South Korea, December 21, 2020

Jupiter and Saturn appeared closer to each other in the sky tonight than they have in the last 800 years — forming a celestial beacon akin to the 'Star of Bethlehem'. Pictured, how the night sky in the south west appears this week

Jupiter and Saturn appeared closer to each other in the sky tonight than they have in the last 800 years — forming a celestial beacon akin to the ‘Star of Bethlehem’. Pictured, how the night sky in the south west appears this week

The gas giants — the largest planets in the solar system — have been slowly getting closer in the sky since the summer, and appeared like a double planet system. Pictured: Saturn (top) and Jupiter (bottom) converging in the sky over Damascus, Syria, tonight

The gas giants — the largest planets in the solar system — have been slowly getting closer in the sky since the summer, and appeared like a double planet system. Pictured: Saturn (top) and Jupiter (bottom) converging in the sky over Damascus, Syria, tonight

A statue of a Kansa Indian atop the Kansas Statehouse stands in the foreground as Saturn, top, and Jupiter, below, are seen Saturday, December 19, 2020 in Topeka, Kansas, US

A statue of a Kansa Indian atop the Kansas Statehouse stands in the foreground as Saturn, top, and Jupiter, below, are seen Saturday, December 19, 2020 in Topeka, Kansas, US 

The planets looked less than a full moon's width apart — appearing low above the horizon for UK viewers — and for the rest of the week until Christmas Day. Pictured, Saturn (top) and Jupiter (below) seen between the twin steeples of the St Joseph Catholic Church in Topeka, Kansas on December 19, 2020

The planets looked less than a full moon’s width apart — appearing low above the horizon for UK viewers — and for the rest of the week until Christmas Day. Pictured, Saturn (top) and Jupiter (below) seen between the twin steeples of the St Joseph Catholic Church in Topeka, Kansas on December 19, 2020

The conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn is seen after sunset above Split, Croatia. The planets appeared closer to each other in the night sky tonight than they have in 800 years

The conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn is seen after sunset above Split, Croatia. The planets appeared closer to each other in the night sky tonight than they have in 800 years

Saturn and Jupiter appeared low on the horizon just after sunset in the south west tonight — less than a full Moon width apart — appearing almost as one object

Saturn and Jupiter appeared low on the horizon just after sunset in the south west tonight — less than a full Moon width apart — appearing almost as one object

Onlookers with a telescope who viewed the conjunction saw not only Jupiter and Saturn, but also some of their largest moons in the same field of view, astronomers have said

Onlookers with a telescope who viewed the conjunction saw not only Jupiter and Saturn, but also some of their largest moons in the same field of view, astronomers have said 

A picture taken on December 21, 2020, in al-Salmi district, a desert area 120 kms west of Kuwait City, shows the great conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn

A picture taken on December 21, 2020, in al-Salmi district, a desert area 120 kms west of Kuwait City, shows the great conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn

The German astronomer Johannes Kepler wrote in 1614 that he believed the 'star of Bethlehem' in the Nativity story may have been a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn

The German astronomer Johannes Kepler wrote in 1614 that he believed the ‘star of Bethlehem’ in the Nativity story may have been a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn

HOW TO CATCH IT

The conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn was visible by eye across the globe. 

The best views were from locations along Earth’s equator. 

From the UK, the planets appeared to almost overlap low above the horizon in the south west for an hour after sunset tonight — from 3.48 onwards.

The phenomenon will be visible for the rest of the week up until Christmas.

Those with a telescope may also be able to see some of Jupiter and Saturn’s largest moons in the same field of view, experts have said. 

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Astrophysicist Megan Argo of the University of Central Lancashire told BBC Radio 4 Today that the event was highly unusual.

‘The best way to look is to go outside after sunset, by the time the sky has gone a bit dark and Jupiter should be the first thing you see in the night sky after the moon,’ she explained.

The view will be best, Dr Argo added, from places with a good western horizon — clear of trees and buildings.

Those in London and New York saw the planets close to the horizon — at around 5.3° and 7.5°, respectively — around an hour after the sun sets tonight.

‘Alignments between these two planets are rather rare, occurring once every 20 years or so,’ said astronomer Patrick Hartigan of Rice University of Houston, Texas.

‘But this conjunction is exceptionally rare because of how close the planets will appear to one another,’ he explained.

‘You’d have to go all the way back to just before dawn on March 4, 1226, to see a closer alignment between these objects visible in the night sky.’

A similar conjunction also occurred in 1623 — but at this time, the planets would have only been visible during the day, making them very difficult to see.

The next time that Jupiter and Saturn will seem as close in the sky will not be until March 15, 2080 — when they will be higher in the sky and visible for longer. 

The next such conjunction of the two bodies after that will not be until sometime after the year 2400.

‘On the evening of closest approach on Dec 21 they will look like a double planet, separated by only 1/5th the diameter of the full moon,’ Professor Hartigan added. 

‘For most telescope viewers, each planet and several of their largest moons will be visible in the same field of view that evening.’

Jupiter and Saturn form double planet in night sky in event known as great conjunction in Burnsville, NC United States on December 21, 2020

Jupiter and Saturn form double planet in night sky in event known as great conjunction in Burnsville, NC United States on December 21, 2020

Saturn and Jupiter close to each other in the night sky above Jersey City, New Jersey, on December 18, 2020 (pictured)

 Saturn and Jupiter close to each other in the night sky above Jersey City, New Jersey, on December 18, 2020 (pictured)

'You'd have to go all the way back to just before dawn on March 4, 1226, to see a closer alignment between these objects visible in the night sky,' said astronomer Patrick Hartigan of Rice University of Houston, Texas. Pictured (top) Saturn and Jupiter approach each other in the night sky above Las Vegas, Nevada on Dec. 20

‘You’d have to go all the way back to just before dawn on March 4, 1226, to see a closer alignment between these objects visible in the night sky,’ said astronomer Patrick Hartigan of Rice University of Houston, Texas. Pictured (top) Saturn and Jupiter approach each other in the night sky above Las Vegas, Nevada on Dec. 20

The next time that Jupiter and Saturn will seem as close in the sky will not be until March 15, 2080 — at which time they will be higher in the sky and visible for longer

The next time that Jupiter and Saturn will seem as close in the sky will not be until March 15, 2080 — at which time they will be higher in the sky and visible for longer

Twitter users have been sharing images of the night sky showing Jupiter and Saturn (seen in the centre between the trees) as they get have grown closer together in recent weeks

Twitter users have been sharing images of the night sky showing Jupiter and Saturn (seen in the centre between the trees) as they get have grown closer together in recent weeks

While Kepler thought a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn was behind the ‘star of Bethlehem’ story in the bible, others believed that it may have been another astronomical event — such as a large comet in the sky. 

Professor Hartigan said that the planetary duo would appear low in the western sky around sunset — and would be bright enough to be viewed in the twilight sky. 

In reality the two planets are still millions of miles apart — Jupiter is about 5AU from the Earth (one AU is the distance of the Earth from the Sun) and Saturn is 10AU away from the Earth — but they appear together due to differences in their orbit.

The two planets as they appear close together during their planetary conjunction, in St. Louis, Missouri, US, December 21, 2020

The two planets as they appear close together during their planetary conjunction, in St. Louis, Missouri, US, December 21, 2020

As seen in Burnsville, North Carolina on December 21, 2020. While Kepler thought a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn was behind the 'star of Bethlehem' story in the bible, others believed that it may have been another astronomical event — such as a large comet in the sky

As seen in Burnsville, North Carolina on December 21, 2020. While Kepler thought a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn was behind the ‘star of Bethlehem’ story in the bible, others believed that it may have been another astronomical event — such as a large comet in the sky

Jupiter (L) and Saturn appear about one-tenth of a degree apart. Pictured, the view above Mt. Tamalpais on December 21, 2020 in Larkspur, California

Jupiter (L) and Saturn appear about one-tenth of a degree apart. Pictured, the view above Mt. Tamalpais on December 21, 2020 in Larkspur, California

Jupiter (L) and Saturn are seen during the great conjunction from the Griffith Observatory on the same day as the winter solstice, December 21, 2020 in Los Angeles, California

Jupiter (L) and Saturn are seen during the great conjunction from the Griffith Observatory on the same day as the winter solstice, December 21, 2020 in Los Angeles, California

When Jupiter and Saturn (pictured as bright lights here) come together, they will be visible at twilight in the south western sky

When Jupiter and Saturn (pictured as bright lights here) come together, they will be visible at twilight in the south western sky

Having been 'nearing' each other since the summer, the giant planets will come to appear less than a full moon's width apart just after sunset on the winter solstice tonight, pictured

Having been ‘nearing’ each other since the summer, the giant planets will come to appear less than a full moon’s width apart just after sunset on the winter solstice tonight, pictured 

The two planets have been gradually appearing closer and closer throughout November and December, to appear as a single object tonight — before moving apart after Christmas

The two planets have been gradually appearing closer and closer throughout November and December, to appear as a single object tonight — before moving apart after Christmas

‘The further north a viewer is, the less time they’ll have to catch a glimpse of the conjunction before the planets sink below the horizon,’ Professor Hartigan explained.

‘By the time skies are fully dark in Houston, for example, the conjunction will be just 9 degrees above the horizon,’ he added. 

‘Viewing that would be manageable if the weather cooperates and you have an unobstructed view to the southwest.’

Onlookers with a telescope who viewed the conjunction earlier tonight not only saw Jupiter and Saturn, but also some of their largest moons in the same field of view, astronomers have said.

Planets Jupiter and Saturn (centre, top) are seen above the Los Angeles skyline during the great conjunction as seen from the Griffith Observatory, December 21, 2020

Planets Jupiter and Saturn (centre, top) are seen above the Los Angeles skyline during the great conjunction as seen from the Griffith Observatory, December 21, 2020

Users have been sharing images of Jupiter and Saturn — that appear as bright stars — as they come closer together on the run up to their conjunction, December 21

Users have been sharing images of Jupiter and Saturn — that appear as bright stars — as they come closer together on the run up to their conjunction, December 21

THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM: INSPIRED THE THREE WISE MEN TO BABY JESUS IN BIBLE STORIES 

The Star of Bethlehem, or the Christmas Star, is said to have inspired the three wise men from the East to visit the baby Jesus in bible stories.

It appears in the nativity story of the Gospel of Matthew, where they are said to have asked King Herod of Judea ‘where is he who has been born King of the Jews’ For we have seen His star in the East and have come to worship Him.’

It is said the star led them to Jesus’ home town where they worship him and give him gifts of gold frankincense and myrrh.

The gospel describes the visitors as ‘Magi’ which is usually translated as ‘wide men’ but can also be used to mean astronomer/astrologer. 

Astronomers have made several attempts to calculate what this star may have been – whether it was a celestial event or pious fiction.

The famed German astronomer Johannes Kepler wrote in 1614 that he believed the ‘star of Bethlehem’ in the biblical story of the three wise men could have been a rare triple conduction of Jupiter, Saturn and Venus.  

This would create a very bright point of light in the sky that would only appear for a few days. A similar conjunction is due to happen Christmas 2020.

Other theories are a supernova explosion reasonably close – that could appear like a very very bright sky for a relatively short period, or even a comet.

Chinese and Korean stargazers have written about a bright object that may have been a comet or supernova around 5 BC seen for more than 70 days.

Ancient astronomers have written of comets ‘hanging over’ specific cities — just as the Star of Bethlehem is said to have ‘stood over’ the place where Jesus was born — the town of Bethlehem. 

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Our astrologer Oscar Cainer’s view

As creative Jupiter and pragmatic Saturn meet in innovative Aquarius – a celestial event known as the Great Conjunction – many astrologers are hailing this as the true dawning of the Age of Aquarius, a period that will take us into and through 2021.

Whenever Jupiter (which represents freedom and optimism) connects with Saturn (standing for authority and structure) they create a transformational energy that can shift worldly systems.

They usher in revolutionary change and deliver ground-breaking progress that will benefit us all, even if this progress may not always take the most direct route – think of Saturn as the stick and Jupiter as the carrot, but working together to achieve their goals.

Together they will shake up our world in ways we can’t even imagine. Some moments will be powerful, happy events; the kind that make us remember where we were when we first heard the news.

The first of these is happening now. The arrival of vaccines against coronavirus is a definite cause for world celebration, but there will be more. Aquarius governs the part of the sky associated with progress and invention.

It sees what others overlook, and finds solutions to problems no matter how outlandish the puzzle may be.

So be it at a personal level – or for society at large – technology, innovation and change lie at the heart of the solutions we seek.

In this case, expect to see great leaps being made in science, where recently gained knowledge suddenly develops new, real-world applications.

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